Dr. Tom Schreiner’s JETS article on individual or corporate election in Romans 9 is a very helpful explanation and defense of the Calvinistic understanding of God’s election. Regarding his purpose for the article, Schreiner states:
The Calvinist exegesis of Romans 9, however, is increasingly questioned today. Many scholars believe that the doctrine of individual election unto salvation is read into the text by Calvinists and cannot be defended by an examination of the entire context of Romans 9-11. What I want to do in this article is to explain two of the objections to the Calvinist reading of Romans 9, and then to examine whether the objections are compelling and persuasive.
The two most common objections to the Calvinist interpretation of Romans 9 are as follows: (1) Romans 9 is wrongly explained if one understands it to refer to salvation. Paul is not referring to salvation in this text. Instead, the historical destiny of different nations (especially Israel) is being narrated. (2) Even if Romans 9 does relate to salvation in some sense, it does not refer to the salvation of individuals. The section relates to the salvation of groups, of corporate entities, and not to individuals. Each of the two objections will be explained and examined more closely.
I highly recommend reading it. You can view and download it here.